Main Article Content


This study aimed to investigate the impacts of Eruca sativa seed extract on some reproductive indicators and carcasses quality for aged local duck males. Forty-five aged local ducks males with the average live-weight of (2000±5g) and two years old were randomly distributed into three treatments (15 for each). After dissolution in corn oil, T2 and T3 were supplemented with 400 and 800 mg alcoholic extract of Eruca sativa seed respectively.T1 has only given corn oil (control). Weekly, a dosage of 2 ml was twice given to the treatments by syringe. The current results showed significant (P<0.05) increases in the relative weight, length, width and volume of testes in males of second and third treatments compared to the first treatment (control). Besides, the second and third treatments recorded significant (P<0.05) improvements in the diameter of seminiferous tubules, seminiferous epithelium thickness (µm) of testes, the Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and the level of testosterone hormone compared to the control. Chemical and physical tests of the breast meat showed no significant among all treatments in the ratio of free fatty acids, pH and water tolerability. Regarding the peroxide number, second treatment recorded the lowest significant (P<0.05) compared to other treatments. It concluded that alcoholic extract of Eruca sativa seed could enhance reproductive characteristics and significantly improve sex hormones in aged local duck males and effect on the number of peroxide in its breast meat.


Eruca sativa Duck Reproductive Traits

Article Details

How to Cite
Al-Salhie , K. C. K., & Makki, G. A. . (2020). Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Garden Rocket Eruca sativa Mill. Seed on Some Reproductive Traits and Carcasses Quality of Aged Local Duck Males. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 33(1), 221–230.


  1. Alam, M.S.; Kaur, G.; Jabbar, Z.; Javed, K. & Athar, M. (2007). Eruca sativa seeds possess antioxidant activity and exert a protective effect on mercuric chloride induced renal toxicity. Food Chem. Toxicol., 45(6): 910-920.
  2. Amin, A. & Hamza, A.A. (2006). Effects of roselle and ginger on cisplatin-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Asian J. Androl., 8: 607-612.
  3. Al-Salhie, K.C.K & Al- Waeli, A.M. (2019). The effect of using different levels of red ginseng roots powder on some physiological characteristics of Japanese Quail males (Coturnix japonica). Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 32(1): 34-38.
  4. Al-Salhie, K.C.K. (2018). The effect of age on growth and development of the gonads pre- to post sexual maturity of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Kufa J. Agric. Sci., 10(3): 39-55.
  5. Al-Salhie, K.C.K.; Al-Hummod, S.K.M. & Abbas, R.J. (2017). Effect of supplementation different levels of vitamin E and pumpkin seed oil to the diet on productive, physiological and reproductive performance of Japanese quail. Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 30(2): 50-58.
  6. AOAC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2016). Official Method Analysis, 20th Ed., Washington: 2: 3172pp.
  7. Ballester, J.; Munoz, M.C.; Dominguez, J.; Rigau,T.; Guinovart, J.J. & Rodriguez-Gil, J.E. (2004). Insulin dependent diabetes affects testicular function by FSH-and LH-linked mechanisms. J Androl., 25: 706-719.
  8. Chung, F.L.; Morse, M.A.; Eklind, K.I. & Lewis, J. (1992). Quantitation of human uptake of the anticarcinogen phenethyl isothiocyanate after a watercress meal. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 1: 383-388.
  9. Davies, S.; Cros, T.; Richard, D.; Meddle, S.L.; Tsutsui, K. & Deviche, P. (2015). Food availability, energetic constraints and reproductive development in a wild seasonally breeding songbird. Funct. Ecol.; 29(11): 1421-1434.
  10. Eady, M.; Samuel, D. & Bowker, B. (2014). Effect of pH and postmortem aging on protein extraction from broiler breast muscle. Poult. Sci., 93(7): 1825-1833.
  11. Garg, G. & Sharma, V. (2014). Eruca sativa (L.): Botanical Description, Crop Improvement, and Medicinal Properties. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medici. Plants, 20(2):171-182.
  12. Getahun, S.M. & Chung, F.L. (1999) Conversion of glucosinolates to isothiocyanates in humans after ingestion of cooked watercress. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 8(5): 447-451.
  13. Helana, N.M.; Reham, E.S. & George, E.R. (2011) Studies on the chemical constituents of fresh leaf of Eruca sativa extract and its biological activity as anticancer agent in vitro. J Med. Plant Res., 5: 1184-1191.
  14. Hoseini, H.F.; Ahmad, G.R.; Saeidnia, S.; Naghi, S.M. & Hadjiakhoondi, A. (2009). The effect of Nasturtium officinale on blood glucose level in diabetic rats. Pharmacology, 3: 866-871.
  15. Hussein, Z.F. (2013). Study the effect of Eruca sativa leaves extract on male fertility in albino mice. J. Al-Nahrain Univ., 16(1): 143-146.
  16. Kim, S.J.; Jin, S. & Ishii, G. (2004). Isolation and structura elucidation of 4 –?–D–glucopyranosyl disulfanyl butyl glucosinolate from leaves of rochet salad (Eruca sativa L.) and its antioxidative activity. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 68(12): 2444- 2450.
  17. Mather, J.P.; Seaz, M.J.; Dray, F.& Haour, F. (1983). Vitamin E prolongs survival and function of porcine Leydig cells in culture. Acta Endocrinol., 102: 470-475.
  18. Manach, C.; Morand, C.; Crespy, V.; Demigne, C.; Texier, O.; Regerat, F. & Rémésy, C. (1998). Quercetin is recovered in human plasma as conjugated derivatives which retain antioxidant properties. FEBS Lett., 426: 331-336.
  19. Merza, H.; Homady, H.H. ; Hussain, K.A.; Tarawneh, J.M.; Shakhanbeh, I.A.A. & Brain, P.F. (2000). Effects of oral application of some medicinal plants extract used in Jordan on social aggression as well as testicular and preputial gland structures in male mice. Pak. Biol. Sci., 3(3): 398-402.
  20. Mohammadi, J.; Motlagh, F.T. & Mohammadi, N. (2017). The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of watercress on parameters of reproductive and sex hormones on the diabetic rats. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., 9(8): 1334-1338.
  21. Nail, T.N.A.; Ali, M.M. & Salim, E.A. (2017). Phytochemical studies on Sudanese Rocket (Eruca sativa) seeds and oil constituents. Am. J. Phytomed. Clin. Ther., 5(1): 1-5.
  22. Nouri, M.; Ghasemzadeh, A.; Farzadi, L.; Shahnazi, V. & Ghaffari, N.M. (2008). Vitamins C, E and lipid peroxidation levels in sperm and seminal plasma of asthenoteratozoospermic and normozoospermicmen. Iran. J. Reprod. Med., 6(1): 1-5.
  23. N.R.C. (1994). National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th edn. Nat. Acad. Sci.. Washington, D.C.:176pp.
  24. Okpe, G.C. & Udoumoh, A.F. (2016). Effect of season on structural composition of drake testes and daily spermatozoa production as determined by quantitative testicular histology. Med. Weter, 72(10): 627-631.
  25. Peegel, H.; Towns, R.; Nair, A. & Menon, K.M. (2005). A novel mechanism for the modulation of luteinizing hormone receptor mRNA expression in the rat ovary. Mol. Cell Endocrinol., 233: 65-72.
  26. Salem, M.A.R. & Moustafa, N.A. (2001). Histological and quantitative study of the effect of Eruca sativa seed oil on the testis of albino rat. Egyptian J. Hosp. Med., 2: 148-162.
  27. Segatelli, T.M.; Franca, L.R.; Inheiro, F.P.; Alemida, C.C.D.; Martinez, M. & Martinez, F.E. (2004). Spermatogenic cycle length and spermatogenic efficiency in the Gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). J. Androl., 25: 872-880.
  28. Shahrokhi, N.; Khaksari. H.M.; Keshavarzi, Z. & Shabani, M. (2009). Effects of aqueous extract of watercress on glucose and lipid plasma in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Pak J Physiol., 5(2): 6-10.
  29. SPSS (2016). Statistical Packages of Social Sciences. IBM Corp. Released 2016. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. https:// www. ibm. com/ analytics/spss-statistics-software
  30. Sultan, A.T.M.; Al-Salhie, K.C.K.& Shawket,T.F. (2019).Effect of adding Lycium barbarum L. extract to drinking water on some productive traits of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) . Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 32( 2) :208-212.
  31. Sultan, A.T.M.; Shawket, T.F. & Al-Salhie, K.C.K.(2020). Effect of adding Lycium barbarum extract to drinking water on some physiological characteristics of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). AIP Conference Proceedings 2235 (020031): 5pP.
  32. Vatsalya, V. & Arora, K.L. (2012). Allometric growth of testes in relation to age, body weight and selected blood parameters in male Japanese quail (coturnix coturnix japonica). Int. J. Poult. Sci., 11(4): 251-258.
  33. Wilson, J.L.; Kristo, M.; McDaniel, G.R. & Sutton, C.D. (1988). Correlation of broiler breeder male and testes morphology. Poult. Sci. 67(4): 660-668.
  34. Yakubu, M.T.; Akanji, M.A. & Oladiji, A.T. (2007). Male sexual dysfunction and methods used in assessing medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potentials. Phcog. Rev., 1(1): 49-56.
  35. Yarney, T.A. & Sanford, L.M. (1993). Pubertal development of ram lamb: physical and endocrinological traits in combination as indices of post pubertal reproductive function. Theriogenology, 40(4): 735-744.