Main Article Content


The aim of this study is to extract the important antioxidants components of flaxseed in different ways. The Determination of total phenol content, antioxidant activity and percentage of linoleic acid inhibition by DPPH for the components (Lignan, oil, 80 and 100% ethanolic extract and the deionized water extract). The components of flaxseed oil were identified using GC/MS. The efficiency of the mixture (80% ethanolic extract and oil)  was determined by inhibiting the process of oxidation of linoleic acid during storage periods (0, 7, 14 and 21 days) at laboratory temperature, and the following results were obtained:  The yield of lignan, oil, ethanol extract (80 and 100)% and deionized  water were (0.12,40.52,10.9,9.6 and 13 )g.100g-1 seed respectively, while the total phenolic content of the above components was (700,1165,3315,2098 and 483)mgGAE.100g-1,respectively. Flaxseed oil gave the highest antioxidant activity 79.3% with an inhibition percentage 73.19%, compared with ethanolic extract, lignan and water extract. The diagnosis of GC/MS flaxseed oil showed that  the oil was contained in compounds with antioxidant activity, including mono, di and tri-terpens such as Copaene, Monoterpene, ?- Sesquiphellandrene, Squalene, diethyl phthalate ,?-Sitosterol and Hexadecanoic acid, as well as, the presence of ascorbic acid and gamma tocopherol with good concentrations (8.68 and 2.62)% respectively. The mixture of 80% ethanol and oil extract showed an effect in decreasing of peroxide values with an increase of concentration of the added mixture (0.1, 0.4 and 0.10 The maximum reduction of the peroxide value at the concentration was 0.6 mg. mg-1, compared with the standard sample during the different durations of storage.


Flaxseed compounds Bioactive compound Total phenol Antioxidant activity

Article Details

How to Cite
Al-Temimi, W. K. A. ., Al- Garory, N. H. ., & Khalaf, A. A. . (2020). Diagnose the Bioactive Compounds in Flaxseed Extract and Its Oil and Use Their Mixture as an Antioxidant. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 33(1), 172–188.


  1. Amin, I. & Tan, S.H. (2002). Antioxidant activity of selected seaweeds. Malays. J. Nutr., 8: 167-177.
  2. Anwar, F. & Przybylski, R. (2012). Effect of solvents extraction on total phenols and antioxidant activity of extracts from flaxseed (Linum usitatissimium L.). Acta Sci. Pol., Technol. Aliment., 11(3): 293-301. PMID: 22744950.
  3. Arora, S.S. & Kumar, G. (2017). Screening and evaluation of bioactive compounds of Cenchrus ciliaris L. by GC-MS analysis. Int. Res. J. Pharm., 8(6): 69-76.
  4. Barthet, V.J.; Klensporf-Pawlik, D. & Przybylski, R. (2014). Antioxidant activity of flaxseed meal components. Can. J. Plant Sci., 94(3): 593-602.
  5. Basch, E.; Bent, S.; Collins, J.; Dacey, C.; Hammerness, P.; Harrison, M.; Smith, M.; Szapary, P.; Ulbricht, C.; Vora, M. & Weissner, W. (2007). Flaxseed and flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum): A review by the natural standard research collaboration. J. Soc. Integr. Oncol., 5(3): 92-105.
  6. Baskar, A.A.; Al-Numair, K.S.; Gabriel, P.M.; Alsaif, M.A.; Muamar, M.A. & Ignacimuthu, S. (2012). ?-sitosterol prevents lipid peroxidation and improves antioxidant status and histoarchitecture in rats with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer. J. Med. Food, 15(4): 335-343.
  7. Bernacchia, R.; Preti, R. & Vinci, G. (2014). Chemical composition and health benefits of flaxseed. Austin J. Nutr. Food Sci., 2(8): 1045-1055.
  8. Dessi, M.A.; Deiana, M.; Day, B.W.; Rosa, A.; Banni, S. & Corongiu, F.P. (2002). Oxidative stability of polyunsaturated fatty acids: effect of squalene. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Techn., 104(8): 506-512.<506::AID-EJLT506>3.0.CO;2-1
  9. Devie, R.R.; Jayalekshmy A. & Arumghan C. (2007). Antioxidant efficacy of phytochemical extracts from defatted rice bran in the bulk oil system. Food Chem., 104(2): 658-664.
  10. Egan, H., Kirk, R.S. & Sawyer, R. (1981) Pearson’s chemical analysis of foods. 8th Edn, Churchill Livingstone, London, New York
  11. El-Beltagi, H.S.; Salama, Z.A. & El-Hariri, D.M. (2011). Evaluation of fatty acids profile and the content of some secondary metabolites in seeds of different flax cultivars, J. Gen. Appl. Plant Physiol., 33(3-4): 187-202. /ipp/gapbfiles/v-33/07_3-4_187-202.pdf.
  12. Elizabeth, N.R.G.; Annete, H.; Francisco, R. G.L.; Javier, F.I.P.; Graciela Z.G. & Alberto, J.G.I. (2007). Antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of phenolic compounds in three different color groups of common beans cultivars. Food Chem., 103, 521-527.
  13. El-Sayed, O.H; Asker, M.M.S.; Shash, S.M. & Hamed, S.R. (2015). Isolation, structure elucidation and biological activity of Di- (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate produced by Penicillium janthinellum 62. Int. J. Chem. Tech. Res., 8(1): 58-66. .
  14. Franco, D.; Sineiroz, J.; Rubilar, M.; Sanchezz, M.; Jerezz, M.; Pinelo, M.; Costoya, N. & Nunez, M.J. (2008). Polyphenols from Plant Materials: Extraction and Antioxidant Power. Elec. J. Environ. Agric. Food Chem., 7(8): 3210-3216.
  15. Ganorkar, P.M. & Jain, R.K. (2013). Flaxseed- a nutritional punch. Int. Food Res. J., 20(2): 519-525.
  16. Gupta, R.; Sharma, A.K.; Dobhal, M.P.; Sharma, M.C. & Gupta, R.S. (2011). Antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of ?-sitosterol in streptozotocin-induced experimental hyperglycemia. J. Diabetes, 3(1): 29-37.
  17. Hall, C.; Tulbek, M.C. & Xu, Y. (2006). Flaxseed. Adv. Food Nut. Res., 51: 1-97.
  18. Han, H.; Y?lmaz, H. & Gulcin, I. (2018). Antioxidant activity of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) shell and analysis of Its polyphenol contents by LC-MS/MS. Rec. Nat. Prod., 12(4): 397-402. .
  19. Herchia, W.; Bahashwanb, S.; Sebeia, K.; Ben Salehc, H.; Kallela, H. & Boukhchina, H. (2015). Effects of germination on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L) oil. Grasasyaceites, 66(1): 1-8.
  20. Hosseinian, F.S.; Muir, A.D.; Westcott, N.D. & Krol, E.S. (2006). Antioxidant capacity of flaxseed lignans in two model systems. J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc., 83: 835-840.
  21. Ibraheim, Z.Z.; Abdel-Mageed, W. M.; Dai, H.; Guo, H.; Zhang, L.;Jaspars, M. (2012). Antimicrobial antioxidant daucane sesquiterpenes from Ferula hermonis Boiss. Phytother Res., 26(4): 579-86.
  22. Ingale, E. & Shrivastava, S.K. (2011). Nutritional study of new variety of ground nut (Arachis hypogaea L.) JL-24 seeds. African J. Food Sci., 5(8):490-498. .
  23. Iqbal, S.; Bhanger, M.I. & Anwar, F. (2005). Antioxidant properties and components of some commercially available varieties of rice bran in Pakistan. Food Chem., 93: 265-272.
  24. Ivanova-Petropulos, V.; Mitrev, S.; Stafilov, T.; Natalija Markova, N.; Leitner, E.; Lankmayr, E. & Siegmund, B. (2015). Characterisation of traditional Macedonian edible oils by their fatty acid composition and their volatile compounds. Food Res. Int., 77(3): 506-514.
  25. Mentes, O.; Bakkalbassi, E. & Ercan, R. (2008). Effect of the use of ground flaxseed on quality and chemical composition of bread. Food Sci. Technol. Int., 19: 549-556.
  26. Nur -Syukriah, A.R.; Liza, M.S.; Harisun, Y. & Fadzillah, A.A.M. (2014). Effect of solvent extraction on antioxidant and antibacterial activities from Quercus infectoria (Manjakani). Int. Food Res. J., 21(3).
  27. Popa, V.; Gruia, A.; Raba, D.; Dumbrava, D.; Moldovan, C.; Bordean, D. & Mateescu, C. (2012). Fatty acids composition and oil characteristics of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) from Romania. J. Agroaliment. Proc. Technol., 18(2): 136-140.
  28. Quintans Jde, S.; Soares, B.M.; Ferraz, R.P.; Oliveira, A.C.; da Silva, T.B.; Menezes, L.R.; Sampaio, M.F.; Prata, A.P.; Moraes, M.O.; Pessoa, C.; Antoniolli, A.R.; Costa, E.V. & Bezerra, D.P. (2013). Chemical constituents and anticancer effects of the essential oil from leaves of Xylopia laevigata. Planta Med., 79: 123-130.
  29. Rababah, T.M.; Hettiarachy, N.S. & Horax, R. (2004). Total phenolics and antioxidant activities of feurgreek, green tea, black tea, grape seed, ginger, rosemary, gotu kola, and ginkgo extracts, vitamin E, and ter-butylhrdroquinone. J. Agric. Food Chem., 52: 5183-5186.
  30. Richard, S.E.; Orcheson, L.J.; Seidl, M.M.; Luyengi, L.; Fong, H.H. & Thompson, L.U. (1996). Dose-dependent of mammalian lignans in rats and vitro from the purified precursor secoisolariciresinal diglucoside in flaxseed. J. Nutr., 126: 2012-2019.
  32. Simbalista, R.L.; Frota, K.D.M.G.; Soares, R.A.M. & Areas, J.A.G. (2012). Effect of storage and processing of Brazilian flaxseed on lipid and lignan contents. J. Ciênc. Technol. Aliment., 32(2): 122-143.
  33. Slavova-Kazakova, A.; Karamac, M.; Kancheva, V. & Amarowicz, R. (2016). Antioxidant activity of flaxseed extracts in lipid systems. Molecules, 21: 17: 1-11.
  34. SPSS. (2012) .Statistical packages of social sciences. Version (21).
  35. Sultana, B.; Anwar, F. & Ashraf, M. (2009). Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts. Molecules, 14: 2167-2180.
  36. Thompson, L.U.; Rickard, S.E.; Cheung, F.; Kenaschuk, E.O. & Obermeyer, W.R. (1997). Variability in anticancer lignan levels in flaxseed. Nutr. Cancer, 27: 26-30.
  37. Toure, A. & Xueming, X. (2010). Flaxseed lignans: Sources, biosynthesis, metabolism, antioxidant activity, bio-active components, and health benefit. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saft., 9: 261-269.
  38. Tyagi, T. & Agarwal, M. (2017). Phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis of bioactive constituents in the ethanolic extract of Pistia stratiotes L. and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) solms. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem., 6(1): 195-206.
  39. Velioglu, Y.S.; Mazza, G.; Gao, L. & Oomah, B.D. (1998). Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables and grain products. J. Agric. Food Chem., 64: 4113-4117.
  40. Zhao, J.; Zhang, J.S.; Yang, B.; Lv, G.P. & Li, S.P. (2010). Free radical scavenging activity and characterization of sesquiterpenoids in four species of curcuma using a TLC bioautography assay and GC-MS analysis. Molecules, 15(11): 7547-7557.