Main Article Content


The article presents results proving the feasibility of extruded amaranth grain (Amaranthus cruentus) in feeding breeding laying hens of the Hisex Brown cross (aged 25-45 weeks). Due to improvements in the quality indicators of hatching eggs, such as weight (2.09%; P<0.01), Haugh units (1.07%; P<0.05), and shell thickness strengthened (5.0 µm; P<0.05) to 362 µm, it was possible to increase egg laying intensity by 1.81%, hatching egg yield by 2.20%, and hatching of chickens by 1.33% with the addition of 5% extruded grain to the diet structure. In the test group, there was an 11.66% (P<0.05) reduction in cholesterol in the yolk of eggs. The test group's hemoglobin concentration rose by 4.16% (P<0.05) in comparison to the control group's blood, while the test group's lymphocyte and segmented neutrophil levels decreased by 1.65% (P<0.05) and 1.93% (P<0.05), respectively. These results demonstrated the high efficacy of the feed under investigation in preserving the immune status of breeding chickens during the first productivity phase. The chicken body exhibited a high level of antioxidant activity as evidenced by the rise in superoxide dismutase activity by 8.85% (P<0.05), the total amount of antioxidants by 21.66% (P<0.01), and the decrease in malonaldehyde by 13.52% (P<0.05) in the test group. Analysis of the microbiome of the cecum in the colon revealed an increase in bacteria of Bifidobacteriales and Lactobacillales by 46.93 (P<0.01) and 25.54% (P<0.01), as well as a rise in Ruminococcaceae by 15.87% (P<0.01), in the test group compared with the control group.


Breeding poultry Egg productivity Extruded amaranth grain Health of laying hens Quality of hatching eggs

Article Details

How to Cite
Gorlov, I. F. ., Komarova, Z. B. ., Slozhenkina, M. I. ., Rudkovskaya, A. V. ., Struk, A. N. ., Anisimova, E. Y. ., Kalinina, N. V. ., Struk, E. A. ., & Drobyazko, O. Y. . (2024). Productive Performance, Hatching Egg Quality and Health Indices of Hisex Brown Laying Hens Fed Extruded Grain Amaranth. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 37(1), 183–195.


  1. Alegbejo, J. O. (2014). Nutritional value and utilization of amaranthus (Amaranthus spp.) – A review. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 6(1), 136-143.
  2. Fasuyi, A. O. (2006). Nutritional potentials of some tropical vegetable meals. Chemical characterization and functional properties. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5(1), 49-53.
  4. Fasuyi, A. O., Dairo, F. A. S., & Adeniji, A. O. (2007). Protein supplementary quality of tropical vegetable (Amaranthus cruentus) leaf meal in broiler starter diets: Bio-nutritional evaluation. International journal of agricultural research, 2(12), 976-986.
  6. Jacob, J. P., Noll, S. L., & Brannon, J. A. (2008). Comparison of metabolic energy content of organic cereal grains for chickens and turkeys. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 17(4), 540-544.
  8. Janmohammadi, H., Hosseintabar-Ghasemabad, B., Oliyai, M., Alijani, S., Gorlov, I. F., Slozhenkina, M. I., Mosolov, A. A., Ramirez, L. S., Seidavi, A., Laudadio, V., Tufarelli, V., & Ragni, M. (2023). Effect of dietary amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus chlorostachys) supplemented with enzyme blend on egg quality, serum biochemistry and antioxidant status in laying hens. Antioxidants, 12(2), 456.
  10. Jimenez-Aguilar, D. M., & Grusak, M. A. (2017). Minerals, vitamin C, phenolic, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of Amaranthus leafy vegetables. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 58, 33-39.
  12. Jimoh, M. O., Afolayan, A. J., & Lewu, F. B. (2019). Therapeutic uses of Amaranthus caudatus L. Tropical Biomedicine, 36(4), 1038-1053.
  13. Karamać, M., Gai, F., Longato, E., Meineri, G., Janiak, M. A., Amarowicz, R., & Peiretti, P. G. (2019). Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) during plant growth. Antioxidants, 8(6), 173.
  15. Króliczewska, B., Zawadzki, W., Bartkowiak, A., & Skiba, T. (2008). The level of selected blood indicators of laying hens fed with addition of amaranth grain. Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities, 11(2), 18.
  17. Kumar, A., Mani, I., Aradwad, P., Samuel, D. V. K., Jha, S., Sahoo, P. K., Sinha, J. P., & Kar, A. (2018). Effect of extrusion technique on anti-nutritional factors of sorghum-soya blends. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 88(3), 81-89.
  19. Li, H., Deng, Z., Liu, R., Zhu, H., Draves, J., Marcone, M., Sun, Y., & Tsao, R. (2015). Characterization of phenolics, betacyanins and antioxidant activities of the seed, leaf, sprout, flower and stalk extracts of three Amaranthus species. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 37, 75-81.
  21. Longato, E., Meineri, G., & Peiretti, P.G. (2017). The effect of Amaranthus caudatus supplementation to diets containing linseed oil on oxidative status, blood serum metabolites, growth performance and meat quality characteristics in broilers. Animal Science Papers and Reports, 35, 71-86.
  22. Martens, S. D., Tiemann, T. T., Bindelle, J., Peters, M., & Lascano, C. E. (2012). Alternative plant protein sources for pigs and chickens in the tropics – nutritional value and constraints: a review. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics, 113(2), 101-123.
  24. Nikmaram, N., Leong, S. Y., Koubaa, M., Zhu, Z., Barba, F. J., Greiner, R., Oey, I., & Roohinejad, S. (2017). Effect of extrusion on the anti-nutritional factors of food products: An overview. Food Control, 79, 62-73.
  26. Peiretti, P.G., Meineri, G., Gai, F., Longato, E., & Amarowicz, R. (2017). Antioxidative activity and phenolic compounds of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain extracts. Natural Product Research, 31(18), 2178-2182.
  28. Pineda-Quiroga, C., Borda-Molina, D., Chaves-Moreno, D., Ruiz, R., Atxaerandio, R., Camarinha-Silva, A., & García-Rodríguez, A. (2019). Microbial and functional profile of the ceca from laying hens affected by feeding prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics. Microorganism, 7(5), 123.
  30. Písaříková, B., Zralý, Z., Kračmar, S., Trčková, M., & Herzig, I. (2005). Nutritional value of amaranth (genus Amaranthus L.) grain in diets for broiler chickens. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 50(12), 568-573.
  31. Popiela, E., Króliczewska, B., Zawadzki, W., Opaliński, S., & Skiba, T. (2013). Effect of extruded amaranth grains on performance, egg traits, fatty acids composition, and selected blood characteristics of laying hens. Livestock Science, 155(2-3), 308-331.
  33. Rathod, R. P., & Annapure, U. S. (2016). Effect of extrusion process on anti-nutritional factors and protein and starch digestibility of lentil splits. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 66, 114-123.
  35. Ravindran, V., Hood, R. L., Gill, R. J., Kneale, C. R., & Bryden, W. L. (1996). Nutritional evaluation of grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) in broiler diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 63(1-4), 323-331.
  37. Rouckova, J., Trckova, M., Herzig, I. (2004). The use of amaranth grain in diets for broiler chickens and its effect on performance and selected biochemical indicators. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 49(12), 532-541.
  39. Strzelecka, M., Bzowska, M., Koziel, J., Szuba, B., Dubiel, O., Riviera Nunez, D., Heinrich, M., & Bereta, J. (2005). Anti-inflammatory effects of extracts from some traditional Mediterranean diet plants. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 56(l), 139-156.
  40. Tillman, P. B., & Waldroup, P. W. (1987). Effects of feeding extruded grain amaranth to laying hens. Poultry Science, 66(10), 1697-1701.
  42. Ulbricht, C., Abrams, T., Conquer, J., Costa, D., Serrano, J.M., Taylor, S., & Varghese, M. (2009). An evidence-based systematic review of amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) by the natural standard research collaboration. Journal of Dietary Supplements, 6(4), 390-417.