Main Article Content


This study has been conducted to determine and identify the metal elements of dates syrup extracted from Khstawy, Zehdy and Shukary using Scanning electron microscope-Energy dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS) technique. The results showed that dates syrup was rich in both metal and non- metals elements. The obtained results showed some different trends in the date syrup content of mineral elements. The results showed the availability of Carbon (C) element in dates syrup extracted via hydraulic pressure from Khstawy (80.73%), Zehdy (65.28 %) and Shukary (68.49%) varieties while in dates syrup produced thermally (80.59%) and dates syrup produced without thermal (72.16%). Oxygen (O) ratio in Khstawy, Zehdy, Shukary, dates syrup produced thermally, and dates syrup produced without thermal were 18.92, 35.27, 15.26, 19.09 and 27.46 respectively. Moreover, the results showed the availability of sodium (Na) (0.17 %), sulphur (S) (0.11 %), potassium (K) (0.05%), silicon (Si) (0.03%) in the dates syrup extracted from Khstawy, while in Zehdy variety there was Aluminum (Al) (0.33%), potassium (K) (0.08%), chloride (Cl) (0.03%), magnesium (Mg) (0.01%). In Shukary variety, Al (5.24%), K (0.05%), nitrogen (N) (10.73%), (S) (0.06%), copper (Cu) (0.18%). Additionally, the results showed that the quantity of metal elements available in dates syrup produced thermally were found as follow as follows: Na (0.22%), S (0.1%) as well as O and C. Yet, the number of the metal elements in the dates syrup produced by hydraulic pressure was more that the dates syrup produced thermally are as follows: Na (0.1%), Al (0.1%), K (0.1%), S (0.02%), Si (0.03%) and phosphor (P) (0.02%).


Chemical elements Date syrup SEM-EDS GC/M

Article Details

How to Cite
Al Hilfi, M. K. ., Al-Fekaiki, D. F., & Al-Hilphy, A. R. . (2019). Identification and Determination of Metal Elements of Dates Syrup Extracted from Various Varieties Using SEM-EDS Technique. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 32(2), 126–134.


  1. Ahmed, I.A.; Ahmed, A.W.K. & Robinson, R.K. (1995). Chemical composition of date varieties as influenced by the stage of ripening. Food Chem., 54(3): 305-309.
  2. Al Sahi, A.A. (1986). The Practical Book in Dates Technology. Univ. Mosul Printing, Mosul, Iraq: 170pp. (In Arabic).
  3. Al- Shahib, W. & Marshall, R.G. (2003). The fruit of the dates palm; it's possible use as the best food for the future? Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr., 54(4): 247-259.
  4. Al-Hooti, S.; Sidhu , J.S. & Qabazard, H. (1995). Studies on the physico-chemical characteristics of date fruits of five UAE cultivars at different stages of maturity. Arab Gulf J. Sci. Res., 13: 553-569.
  5. Al-Hooti, S.N.; Sidhu, J.S.; Al-Saqer, J.M. & Al-Othman, A. (2002). Chemical composition and quality of date syrup as affected by Pectinase/ Cellulase enzyme treatment. Food Chem., 79: 215-220.
  6. Assirey, E.A.R. (2015). Nutritional composition of fruit of 10 date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars grown in Saudi Arabia. J. Taibah Univ. Sci., 9(1): 75-79.
  7. Bassat, F.F. (1971). Making of Dates Palms Products. AL Adeeb Baghdad Printer, Baghdad: 116pp.
  8. Manahan, S. (2017). Environmental Chemistry. CRC Press: 789pp.
  9. El-Nagga, E.A. & Abd El-Tawab, Y.A. (2012). Compositional characteristics of dates syrup extracted by different methods in some fermented dairy products. Annals Agric. Sci., 57(1): 29-36.
  10. Eruvbetine, D. (2003). Canine Nutrition and Health: A paper presented at the seminar organized by Kensington Pharmaceuticals Nig. Ltd., Lagos on 21 August, 2003.
  11. Farahnaky, A.; Mardani, M.; Mesbahi, G.; Majzoobi, M. & Golmakani, M.T. (2016). Some physicochemical properties of date syrup, concentrate, and liquid sugar in comparison with sucrose solutions. J. Agr. Sci. Tech., 18: 657-668.
  12. GCC Standardization Organization (GSO) (2012). Dates Syrup. GSO 05/FDS/1813:2012 (E). 3pp.
  14. Ibrahim, A.A.B.O. (2014). Dates palm-History, Heritage, Food and Medicine-Essa Cultural Center: 127pp.
  15. Ibrahim, A.A.B.O. (2015). The Assays of Comments on Dates syrup (Dibs) Manufacture. AL Mursi news.
  16. Järup, L. (2003). Hazards of heavy metal contamination Brit. Med. Bull., 68(1): 167-182.
  17. Goldstein, J.I.; Newbury, D.E.; Michael, J.R.; Ritchie, N.W.; Scott, J.H.J. & Joy, D.C. (2017). Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis. Springer. 549pp.
  18. Kennish, M.J. (1992). Ecology of Estuaries: Anthropogenic Effects, C.R.C. Press, Boca Raton: 494pp.
  19. Leigh, A.M. & Michalczyk, A. (2006). Zinc deficiency and its inherited disorders - A review. Genes Nut., 1: 41-50.
  20. Murray, R.K.; Granner, D.K.; Mayes, P.A. & Rodwell, V.W. (2000). Harper’s Biochemistry. 25th ed., McGraw-Hill, Health Profession Division: 880pp.
  21. Ramadan, B.R. (1998). Preparation and evaluation of Egyptian dates syrup. 1st Int. Conf. Dates Palms. 8-10 March, 1998, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates Univ.: 86-99.
  22. U.S. EPA. (2002). Draft action plan: Development of a framework for metals assessment and guidance for characterizing metals. EPA/630/P-02/003A. Washington, D.C.: 55pp.