Main Article Content


The results of the current study showed that the caper plant contains active compounds such as phenols and flavonoids. Caper gel exhibited the highest antioxidant activity about 92.31 % when used at concentration 100 %, when was comparable to that shown by the industrial antioxidant Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT), which reached to 93.41%. The results also indicated that the alcohol extract of the caper gel was able to sweep the hydrogen peroxide amounted to 81.05 % compared to that shown by the industrial antioxidant and without significant differences. It also showed a reduction of 2.25 % which was not significantly different from standard ascorbic antioxidant which had the highest average of 2.84 %. This ability increased with an increase in gel concentration with no significant differences.


Antioxidants Caper fruits (Capparies spinosa) Gel extraction

Article Details

How to Cite
Al-Birawee, A. R. ., & Nasser, A. K. . (2019). Gel Extraction from Caper Fruits (Capparies spinosa L.) and Assess its Effectiveness as Antioxidants. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 32(2), 74–84.


  1. A.O.A.C. (2000). Official Method of Analysis. Horwitz, W.L.; George W. & Latimer. Jr. (Eds.). 18th ed. Washington, D.C., Association of official Agricultural Chemists: 2200pp.
  2. Al-Jubouri, A.H.; Abadi, I.M. & Shaker, K.A.R. (2014). Extract of flax seeds from Linum usitatissimum L. cultivated in Iraq. J. Coll. Sci. Al-Nahrain Univ., 17(3): 41-49. (In Arabic).
  3. Al-Khazaraji, S.M. (1991). Biopharmacolog-. ical study of Artemisia herba, M. Sc. Thesis, Coll. Pharm. Univ. Baghdad: 124pp.
  4. Al-Moussawi, A.H.J. & Al-Halfi, S.A.H. (2012). Separation, diagnosis, and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds of some plant extracts. J. Univ. Karbala. 2nd Sci. Conf. Fac. Agric.: 1218-1228. (In Arabic).
  5. Al-Rawi, K.M. & Khalaf Allah, A.A.M. (2000). Design and Analysis of Agricultural Experiments. Second Edition, House of Books for Printing and Publishing, Univ. Mosul: 488pp (In Arabic).
  6. Ashour, E.A.; Alagawany, M.; Reda, F.M.; Abd El-Hack, M.E.; Abaza, I.M.; El-Said, H.; Acamovic, T.; Brooker, J.D.; Aebi, H.; Al-Bar, A. & Cheeke, P.R.
  7. (2005). Association of official analytical chemists official methods of analysis. Asian. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 9(11): 259-266.
  8. Bhaduri, S. (2016). An assessment of antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of super grain quinoa. J. Food. Process. Techn., 7(2): 107-109.
  9. Chaudhary, G.; Goyal, S. & Poonia, P. (2010). Lawsoniainermis Linnaeus: A phytopharma ecological review. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Drug Res.; 2(2): 91-98.
  10. Comai, S.; Bertazzo, A. & Bailoni, L. (2007). The content of protein and non-proteic (Free and Protein-Bound) tryptophan in quinoa and cereal flours. Food Chem., 100: 1350-1355.
  11. Dickinson, E. (2003). Hydrocolloids at interfaces and the influence on the properties of dispersed systems. Food Hydrocolloids, 17(1): 25-39.
  12. Fekri, N.; Khayami, M.; Heidari, R. & Jamee, R. (2008). Chemical analysis of flaxseed, sweet basil, dragon head, and quince seed mucilages. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 3(2): 166-170.
  13. Garti, N. & Leser, M.E. (2001). Emulsification properties of hydrocolloids. Polymers Adv. Technologies, 12: 123-135.
  14. Goycoolea, F.M. & Cárdenas, A. (2003). Pectins from Opuntia spp.: A short review. J. Prof. Assoc. Cactus Dev., 5(1): 17-29.
  15. Gülç?n, ?.; Oktay, M.; K?reçc?, E. & Küfrev?o?lu, Ö.?. (2003). Screening of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) seed extracts. Food Chem., 83(3): 371-382.
  16. Gunjan, M.; Naing, T.W.; Saini, R.S.; Ahmad, A.; Naidu, J.R. & Kumar, I. (2015). Marketing trends and future prospects of herbal medicine in the treatment of various diseases. World J. Pharm. Res., 4(9): 132-155.
  17. Harborne, J.B. (1984). Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. Springer, Dordrecht London: 288pp.
  18. Hosseini-Parvar, S.H.; Matia-Merino, L.; Goh, K.K.T. & Mortazavi, S.A. (2010). Steady shear flow behavior of gum extracted from Ocimum basilicum L. seed: Effect of concentration and temperature. J. Food Eng., 101: 236-243.
  19. Khaled, F.A.; Yousef, M.I. & Kamel, K.I. (2016). The protective role of propolis against the reproductive toxicity of monosodium glutamine in male rabbits. IJCS, 4(2): 4-9.?
  20. Kim, S.; Choung, S. & Hyun, S. (2006). Antidiabetic effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose in db/db mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 104: 119-123.
  21. Ma, Z.F. & Zhang, H. (2017). Phytochemical constituents, health benefits, and industrial applications of grape seeds: A mini-review. Antioxidants, 6(3): 71. doi:10.3390/antiox 6030071.
  22. Manhiani, P.S.; Northcutt, J.K.; Han, I.; Bridges, W.C. & Dawson, P.L. (2013). Antioxidant activity of carnosine extracted from various poultry tissues. Poult. Sci., 92 (2): 444-453.
  23. Nagulendran, K.R.; Velavn, S.; Mahesh, R. & Begum, V.H. (2009). In vitro antioxidant activity and total polyphenolic content Cyperusratundus rhizomes. J. Chem., 4: 440-449.
  24. Osawa, T. & Namiki, M. (1981). A novel type of antioxidant isolated from leaf wax of Eucalyptus leaves. Agric. Biol. Chem., 45: 735-739.
  25. Pascual, B.; San Bautista, A.; Lopez-Galarza, S.; Alagarda, J. & Maroto, J.V. (2006). The intact fruit of Caper (Capparis spinosa) is an improved seed propagation method. Acta Hortic., 782: 107-114.
  26. Razavi, S.M.A.; Mortazavi, S.A.; Matia-Merino, L.; Hosseini-Parvar, S.H.; Motamed Zadegan, A. & Khanipour, E. (2009). Optimization study of gum extraction from basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum L.). Int. J. Food Sci. Techn., 44: 1755-176.
  27. Singer, F.A.W.; Taha, F.S.; Mohamed, S.S.; Gibriel, A. & El-Nawawy, M. (2011). Preparation of mucilage/protein products from flaxseed. Am. J. Food Technol., 6(4): 260-278.
  28. SPSS. (2012). Statistical Packages of Social Sciences. Version 15 for Windows. SPSS. Inc.
  29. Tesoriere, L.; Butera, D.; Gentile, C. & Livrea, M.A. (2007). Bioactive components of Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) from Sicily and antioxidant effects in a red meat simulated gastric digestion. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55: 8465-8471.
  30. Türko?lu, S.; Çelik, S.; Türko?lu, ?.; Çak?lc?o?lu, U. & Bahsi, M. (2010). Determination of the antioxidant properties of ethanol and water extracts from different parts of Teucriumparvi florum Schreber. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 9(40): 6797-6805.
  31. Yasser, M.H. (2011). Effect of Capparis spinosa leaf extracts on the growth of Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani isolated from Citrullus watermelon. J. Thi-Qar Sci., 2 (4): 71-83.
  32. Zia-Ul-Haq, M.; ?avar, S.; Qayum, M.; Imran, I. & Feo, V.D. (2011). Compositional studies: antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 12(12): 8846-8861.